This visualisation is based on hate and bias motivated crime incidents that were reported to the Ottawa Police Service between 2015 and 2020.
Hate crimes have a disproportionately greater effect on their victims than other types of crimes. Hate-motivated crimes have longer lasting serious side-effects for society as a whole. A hate-motivated crime not only victimizes the individual, but also the entire group the person belongs to, resulting in the increased isolation, stress, and vulnerability of that particular group.
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Hate Crime Motivations: The Motivations for Hate Crime categories are defined by the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Survey based on the Criminal Code of Canada .
Offence types refer to violations of the Criminal Code .
 Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Survey: https://doi.org/10.25318/3510006601-eng
 Classification of Criminal Code Violations: https://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p3VD.pl?Function=getVDStruct&TVD=246228&CVD=246229&CPV=1&CST=01012015&CLV=1&MLV=5
These data should be used with caution because hate crimes usually are not reported and recorded consistently. Ontario Human Rights Commission (2013) notifies that reported hate crimes to police have limitations as follows:
A study on racial disparities in hate crime reporting (2010) supports prior assertions that racial hate crime victimization remains underreported. The study shows that racial hate crime victims were not the most likely to report violence to the police; racial minority victimizations were ~35% less likely to be reported than white victimizations.
 Ontario Human Rights Commission (2013) Human Rights and Creed Research and Consultation Report. Retrieved from http://www.ohrc.on.ca/en/human-rights-and-creed-research-and-consultation-report
 Zaykowski, H. (2010) Racial disparities in hate crime reporting. Violence and Victims, 25(3), 378-394. doi:10.1891/0886-6708.25.3.378